Shipping, both inland and on the seas, generates an enormous amount of CO2, both during sailing and whilst vessels are moored. For this reason, in the not too distant future, strict regulations will be implemented to reduce emissions, e.g., in the form of strict limits on the percentage of sulphur in fuel or the required placement of scrubbers for the partial capture of CO2. This will result in an increase in costs, forcing both shipping companies and loaders to raise freight costs, with all of the resulting chain reactions. But even then, ships will still not have ceased to emit CO2. In the Netherlands alone, there are ninety thousand registered inland vessels in need of modification.
Electrification of propulsion systems and generators based on H2Fuel provides a definitive solution in this regard, with dangerous emissions, such as CO2, being consigned to the past. Ships tank up H2Fuel granules, filter ultrapure water from the surrounding water and, when moored, discharge their spent fuel into inland tankers for regeneration. With extremely heavy-duty engines, it is also possible to inject the hydrogen as fuel directly into slightly modified engines, making it possible to dispense with the use of a fuel cell.